Tsirou E, Goulis GD
Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Correspondence: Tsirou Efrosyni, Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Papageorgiou hospital, GR-56403, Thessaloniki, Greece. Ε-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Nutrition plays a cardinal role for skeletal health during achievement of peak bone mass, from birth to the 30th year of life, as well as during its maintenance during adulthood. A balanced nutritional behavior that covers the daily needs for calcium and vitamin D intake is the key component of reaching the peak bone mass in adulthood as well as minimizing the loss of bone mass in elderly people. The bone density of adults derives from the peak bone mass and the rate of bone loss. Many studies have shown that peak bone mass is influenced by genetic factors (60-70%), such as ethnic origin, sex and family history, as well as environmental factors (30-40%), such as nutrition, exercise, lifestyle, specific diseases and use of medications. In this review, the food nutrients are analysed in detail as well as the way they act on skeletal health.
Keywords: nutrition, osteoporosis, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals