Placental hormones mimicking the role of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones

Vrachnis Ν1, Iliodromiti Ζ2, Grigoriadis C1, Siristatidis C3, Deligeoroglou Ε1, Creatsas G1

12nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieio hospital, Athens, Greece

2Neonatology Unit, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Aretaieio hospital, Athens, Greece

3Assisted Reproduction Unit, 3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Attiko hospital, Athens, Greece

Correspondence: Vrachnis Nikolaos, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University ofAthens, Aretaieio hospital, 124Β Vasilissis Sofias Avenue, GR-11526, Αthens, Greece

 


 

Abstract

Among the functions of the human placenta, its function as an endocrine organ is crucial, as it results in the production of multiple hormones exerting both endocrine and paracrine roles in the development of the fetus. These hormones, numbering more than thirty, include amines, polypeptides, proteins, glucoproteins, steroid hormones, cytokines and growth factors. Some of them mimic the role of known hypothalamic and pituitary hormones and either regulate the release of regional placental hormones or play specific roles in the maternal / fetal circulation.

Key words: placenta; hormones; endocrine role; paracrine role, autocrine role; growth factor; human chorionic gonadotropin; prolactin; TSH; endorphins