Fetal maternal immune cross talking and vaccination during pregnancy

Panagiota Masoura, Georgia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Diamanto Tsianni, Anastasia Kourtesa, Kalliopi Pappa

Maternal adaptations in pregnancy induce complex physiological changes of the immune system which protect mother’s health and ensure the accommodation of the growing embryo. The innate immunity is amplified and the adaptive immunity is partially suppressed, preserving the ability to produce antibodies…

Case Report

Glycogen storage disease type iv: a case with histologic findings in placental tissue from first trimester miscarriage

Anastasia Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos Zacharis, Stavros Kravvaritis, Theodoros Charitos, Eleni Chrysafopoulou, Anastasia Fouka



Glycogen storage disease Type IV is a rare hereditary autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient enzymatic activity of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) which is encoded by GBE1 gene. We hereby report the case of a 32-year-old woman presented with a first-trimester miscarriage. The histologic findings of the placental tissue included intracytoplasmic inclusion vacuoles suggested GSD‐IV. The diagnosis was confirmed by the genetic analysis of the parents, in which mother was found to be carrier of a GBE1 mutation…


Toxicological impact of heavy metals on the placenta: A literature review

Mantakas Xenofon, Sofoudis Chrisostomos, Koumousidis Antonios, Sinha Prabha

The purpose of this study is the review of the literature regarding the placental damage after exposure to heavy metals. The role of the feto-placental unit is particularly important during pregnancy and replaces the function of the not fully formed organs of the fetus, like the lungs, kidneys, the gastrointestinal and the endocrine system. Moreover, it protects the fetus from …


Placental eicosanoids as endocrine and paracrine mediators during pregnancy

Iliodromiti Zoe, Grigoriadis Charalampos, Stournaras Stamatis, Daniilidis Angelos, Dafopoulos Konstantinos, Vrachnis Nikolaos

Eicosanoids, biologically active molecules possessing a wide range of functions, include prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. During pregnancy, eicosanoids are produced by the chorionic membranes and the decidua as well as by the placenta. The eicosanoids play an important role throughout pregnancy. During implantation, they enable the trophoblast to invade and colonize …


The endocrine and paracrine role of placental cytokines, growth factors and peptides

Vrachnis Nikolaos, Grigoriadis Charalampos, Zygouris Dimitrios, Vlachadis Nikolaos, Antonakopoulos Nikolaos, Iliodromiti Zoe

The human placenta plays a major role in pregnancy as it is the main organ of communication between the mother and the fetus. One of its actions is the secretion of a variety of substances. Cytokines, growth factors and peptides are secreted by the placenta during pregnancy and may act via endocrine, autocrine and paracrine pathways. Cytokines promote trophoblast implantation as well …

Placental hormones mimicking the role of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones

Vrachnis Ν, Iliodromiti Ζ, Grigoriadis C, Siristatidis C, Deligeoroglou Ε, Creatsas G

Among the functions of the human placenta, its function as an endocrine organ is crucial, as it results in the production of multiple hormones exerting both endocrine and paracrine roles in the development of the fetus. These hormones, numbering more than thirty, include amines, polypeptides, proteins, glucoproteins, steroid hormones, cytokines and growth factors …