Toxicological impact of heavy metals on the placenta: A literature review

Mantakas Xenofon, Sofoudis Chrisostomos, Koumousidis Antonios, Sinha Prabha

The purpose of this study is the review of the literature regarding the placental damage after exposure to heavy metals. The role of the feto-placental unit is particularly important during pregnancy and replaces the function of the not fully formed organs of the fetus, like the lungs, kidneys, the gastrointestinal and the endocrine system. Moreover, it protects the fetus from …


Placental eicosanoids as endocrine and paracrine mediators during pregnancy

Iliodromiti Zoe, Grigoriadis Charalampos, Stournaras Stamatis, Daniilidis Angelos, Dafopoulos Konstantinos, Vrachnis Nikolaos

Eicosanoids, biologically active molecules possessing a wide range of functions, include prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. During pregnancy, eicosanoids are produced by the chorionic membranes and the decidua as well as by the placenta. The eicosanoids play an important role throughout pregnancy. During implantation, they enable the trophoblast to invade and colonize …


The endocrine and paracrine role of placental cytokines, growth factors and peptides

Vrachnis Nikolaos, Grigoriadis Charalampos, Zygouris Dimitrios, Vlachadis Nikolaos, Antonakopoulos Nikolaos, Iliodromiti Zoe

The human placenta plays a major role in pregnancy as it is the main organ of communication between the mother and the fetus. One of its actions is the secretion of a variety of substances. Cytokines, growth factors and peptides are secreted by the placenta during pregnancy and may act via endocrine, autocrine and paracrine pathways. Cytokines promote trophoblast implantation as well …

Placental hormones mimicking the role of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones

Vrachnis Ν, Iliodromiti Ζ, Grigoriadis C, Siristatidis C, Deligeoroglou Ε, Creatsas G

Among the functions of the human placenta, its function as an endocrine organ is crucial, as it results in the production of multiple hormones exerting both endocrine and paracrine roles in the development of the fetus. These hormones, numbering more than thirty, include amines, polypeptides, proteins, glucoproteins, steroid hormones, cytokines and growth factors …